NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science (History)
Chapter 1: The Rise of Nationalism in Europe
|Subject:||Social Science (History)|
|Chapter Name:||The Rise of Nationalism in Europe|
|Number of Questions Solved:||11|
- From the exam point of view, the students should be able to know:
- Trace the emergence of nationalism in Europe
- Examine the concept of a nation and nationalism
- Comprehend the role of great national leaders of Europe such as Napoleon and Garibaldi
- Comprehend the process of unification in Germany, Italy, and the Balkan
- Evaluate the inter-relation between Imperialism and Nationalism
- Appreciate the role of romanticism and the importance of national symbols and icons
Write a note on:
(a) Guiseppe Mazzini
(b) Count Camillo de Cavour
(c) The Greek war of independence
(d) Frankfurt Parliament
(e) The role of women in nationalist struggles
(a) Guiseppe Mazzini: Mazzini was an Italian revolutionary who contributed to the unification of Italy. He was a member of the secret society of the Carbonari. He inspired the youth of Italy with national ideas. In 1831, he was sent into exile for attempting a revolution in Liguria. He subsequently founded two more secret societies, i.e., Young Italy in Marseilles and Young Europe in Berne to involve the youth in revolutionary activities.
(b) Count Camillo de Cavour: Cavour became the chief minister of the Kingdom of Piedmont and led the movement to unify the regions of Italy. He was neither a revolutionary nor a democrat. But he is called the real maker of Italy. Through a tactful diplomatic alliance with France, he succeeded in defeating the Austrian forces in 1859 and setting up the United Italian Kingdom.
(c) The Greek war of independence: Greece had been a part of the Ottoman Empire since the fifteenth century. The growth of revolutionary nationalism in Europe sparked a struggle for independence amongst the Greeks which began in 1821. Nationalists in Greece got support from the masses, poets, and artists and also from many west Europeans in getting independence which was proclaimed with the Treaty of Constantinople of 1832.
(d) The role of women in nationalist struggles: Frankfurt Parliament: Frankfurt Parliament is the name given to the German National Assembly. It was founded during the Revolution of 1848. It tried to unite Germany in a democratic way. The assembly was attended by 831 elected representatives who drafted a constitution for a new German nation to be headed by a monarchy subject to parliament. But when the crown was offered to Wilhelm IV, king of Prussia, he rejected it and joined other monarchs to oppose the elected assembly. Though the Frankfurt Parliament could not succeed to unite Germany it had far-reaching consequences on Germany.
(e) The role of women in nationalist struggles: In European countries, a large number of women had participated in the liberal and national movements. They formed their own political associations, founded newspapers, and took part in political meetings and demonstrations. Despite this, they were denied the right to vote during the election of the Assembly. So, when the Frankfurt Parliament convened in the Church of St Paul, women were admitted only as observers to stand in the visitors’ gallery.
What steps did the French revolutionaries take to create a sense of collective identity among the French people? [2010, 2014,2015]
- The ideas of la patrie (the fatherland) and le citoyen (the citizen) emphasised the notion of a united community enjoying equal rights under a constitution.
- A new French flag, the tricolor, was chosen to replace the former royal standard.
- The Estates-General was elected by the body of active citizens and renamed the National Assembly.
- New hymns were composed, oaths taken and martyrs commemorated, all in the name of the nation.
- A centralised administrative system was put in place.
Who were Marianne and Germania? What was the importance of the way in which they were portrayed?
Marianne was the allegory of the nation in France that underlined the idea of a people’s nation. Her characteristics were drawn from those of liberty and the republic the red cap, the tricolor, the cockade. Statues of Marianne were erected in public squares to remind the public of the national symbol of unity and to persuade them to identify with it. Marianne’s images were marked on coins and stamps.
Germania was the allegory of the German nation. She is depicted as wearing a crown of oak leaves, as the German oak stands for heroism and holding a sword and olive branch in one hand and the flag in the other hand.
Briefly trace the process of German unification.
Describe the process of unification of Germany. [2012, 2015]
Explain the process of unification of Germany.
Germans. They united in 1848 to create a nation-state out of the numerous German States. But the monarchy and the military got together to repress them and they gained support from the landowners of Prussia (the Junkers) too. Prussia soon became the leader of the German unification movement. Its Chief Minister Otto von Bismarck was the architect of the process with support from the Prussian army and Prussian bureaucracy. The unification process was completed after Prussia won wars with Austria, Denmark, and France over seven years. In January 1871, the Prussian king, William I, was proclaimed the German Emperor in a ceremony held at Versailles.
What changes did Napoleon introduce to make the administrative system more efficient in the territories ruled by him?
Napoleon had destroyed democracy in France but in the administrative field, he had incorporated revolutionary principles.” justify this statement. 
Explain any four provisions of the Napoleon civil code, 1804. 
Explain any three features of the Napoleonic Code. 
“Napoleon had no doubt destroyed democracy in France, but in the administrative field, he had incorporated revolutionary principles in order to make the whole system more rational and efficient.” Support this statement. 
Napoleon contributed to creating a feeling of oneness among people by introducing revolutionary principles and setting up a uniform administrative system. In 1804, he introduced the Civil Code, usually known as the Napoleonic Code, which did away with all privileges based on birth. The Code also established equality before the law and secured the right to property. He abolished the feudal system and freed peasants from serfdom and manorial dues. In towns too, guild restrictions were removed. Transport and communication systems were improved. Peasants, artisans, workers, and new businessmen enjoyed newfound freedom. He standardized weights and measures and introduced uniform currency in all the areas that came under his control.
Explain what is meant by the 1848 revolution of the liberals. What were the political, social, and economic ideas supported by the liberals?
Explain the concept of liberalism. What did it politically emphasize during nineteenth-century Europe? 
The 1848 revolution of the liberals mean the revolution led by the educated middle classes of Europe. Events of February 1848, in France, brought about the abdication of the monarchy, and a republic based on a universal male franchise was formed. In Europe, the educated middle class made up of industrialists, businessmen and professionals played a lead role in the nationalist movement. They were imbibed by liberal ideas and socially, demanded freedom of individuals, freedom of the press, and equality of all before the law. Politically, they emphasized the concept of government by consent. Since the French Revolution, these revolutionaries stood for the end of autocracy and clerical privileges and emphasized a constitution and representative government through parliament. They also stressed the inviolability of private property. In . the economic sphere, they stood for the freedom of markets and the abolition of state-imposed restrictions on trade.
Choose three examples to show the contribution of culture to the growth of nationalism in Europe.
“Culture played an important role in creating the idea of the nation in Europe.” Support the statement with an example. 
How did culture play an important role in creating the idea of a nation-state in Europe? Explain with an example. 
How did nationalism develop through culture in Europe? Explain. 
In Europe, culture made a significant contribution to strengthening nationalistic feelings.
(a) Romanticism was a cultural movement, which sought to develop a particular form of nationalist sentiment. Criticizing the glorification of reason and science, it made effort to create a sense of a shared collective heritage, a common cultural past as the basis of a nation.
(b) Folk culture such as folk songs, folk poetry, and folk dances popularised the true spirit of the nation and united common people.
(c) Language too played an important role in developing nationalist sentiments. After the Russian occupation, the Polish language was forced out of schools and the Russian language was imposed everywhere. A large number of priests and bishops, however, used Polish for church gatherings and all religious instructions. So, they were put in jail or sent to Siberia by the Russian authorities as punishment. Thus, the use of Polish came to be seen as a symbol of the struggle against Russian dominance. The emphasis on vernacular language and the collection of local folklore was not just to recover an ancient national spirit, but also to carry the modern nationalist message to a large audience who were mostly illiterate.
Through a focus on any two countries, explain how nations developed over the nineteenth century.
How nation-states developed/emerged over the nineteenth century in Europe. Explain in context of any two nation-states.
The dedication, contribution, and effort of the three great leaders: Mazzini, Cavour, and Garibaldi helped in the unification of Italy. Italy had a long history of political fragmentation. Italians were scattered over several dynastic states as well as the multinational Habsburg empire. During the middle of the nineteenth century, Italy was divided into seven states, of which only one, Sardinia-Piedmont, was ruled by an Italian princely house. The north was under Austrian Habsburgs, the center was ruled by the pope and the southern regions were under the domination of Bourbon Kings of Spain.
During the 1830s, Giuseppe Mazzini sought to put together a program for the unitary Italian Republic. He also formed a secret society called Young Italy for the dissemination of his goals. The failure of revolutionary uprisings both in 1831 and 1848 meant that the unification of Italy could be possible through war under King Victor Emmanuel II.
Victor Emmanuel’s chief minister Cavour supported him wholeheartedly in this task. He was neither a revolutionary nor a democrat but he led the movement to unify the Italian regions. He made a tactical diplomatic alliance with France and succeeded in defeating the Austrian forces in 1859. Apart from regular troops, a large number of armed volunteers under the leadership of Garibaldi joined the fray. In 1860, they marched into South Italy and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies and succeeded in winning the support of the local peasantry in order to drive out the Spanish rulers. Finally, in 1861, king Emmanuel II was proclaimed king of united Italy.
(a) The Frankfurt Parliament tried its best for the unification of Germany under the leadership of king Wilhelm IV of Prussia but it failed and made it clear that German unification had to come through the combined effort of monarchy and military supported by large landowners of Prussia.
(b) From then on, Prussia took on the leadership of the movement for national unification.
(c) Otto von Bismarck, the Chief Minister of Prussia, was the architect of this process. He wanted to achieve his aim by expanding Prussia into Germany. He reached his goal with the help of the Prussian army and the bureaucracy.
(d) Bismarck fought three wars over seven years with Austria, Denmark, and France which ended in Prussian victory and completed the process of unification.
(e) On January 18, 1871, an assembly comprising the princes of the German states, representatives of the army, important Prussian ministers including the Chief Minister Otto von Bismarck gathered in the unheated Hall of Mirrors in the Palace of Versailles to proclaim the new German Empire headed by Kaisar William I of Prussia.
How was the history of nationalism in Britain unlike the rest of Europe?
How did the feeling of nationalism develop in Britain? Explain how was it distinct from rest of the Europe?
(a) In Britain, the formation of the nation-state was not the result of a sudden upheaval or revolution.
(b) There was no British nation prior to the eighteenth century. The primary identities of the people who inhabited the British Isles were ethnic ones such as English, Welsh, Scot, or Irish.
(c) All of these ethnic groups had their own cultural and political traditions. But as the English nation steadily grew in wealth, importance, and power, it was able to extend its influence over the other nations of the islands.
(d) In 1688, the English parliament seized power from the monarchy and became the instrument through which a nation-state, with England at its center, came to be forged.
(e) The Act of Union [1707) between England and Scotland resulted in the formation of the ‘United Kingdom of Great Britain’.
(f) Though the Irish Catholics were against a union with England as the English helped the protestants of Ireland to establish their dominance over a largely Catholic country, Ireland was forcibly incorporated into the United Kingdom in 1801.
Thus, the emergence of the United Kingdom as a strong and democratic state was the result of parliamentary action and not of a revolution or war.
Why did nationalist tensions emerge in the Balkans?
Though all countries accepted the idea of nation-states as natural and universal, the people everywhere developed their own specific variety of nationalism.
The Balkans was the most serious source of nationalist tension in Europe. It presents a unique example of how the rebellious nationalists struggled to win back their long-lost independence.
The Balkans was a region of geographical and ethnic variations comprising modern-day Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia, and Montenegro. The inhabitants who belonged to the ethnic group were broadly known as the Slavs. A large part of the Balkans had been under the rule of the Ottoman Empire for a long. Due to the strategic position of the Balkan region, imperial powers of Europe wanted to extend their control over the region. So they competed with one another resulting in intense conflict among these powers. The domination of other powers separated the people of the Balkans from each other who belonged to one ethnic group. The spread of the ideas of romantic nationalism in the Balkans together with the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire made this region very explosive. The Balkan region, thus, became an area of intense conflict leading to a series of wars in the region and finally the First World War.
How has French artist Frederic Sorrieu, visualized in his first print of the series his dream of democracy and republic. 
Who was Frederic Sorrieu? Discuss four prints prepared by him expressing his vision.
Frederic Sorrieu was a French artist who prepared a series of four prints visualizing his dream of a world made up of ‘democratic and social republics’ as he referred to them. The four prints signified the following:
(a) The first print of the series showed people of Europe and America—men and women of all ages and social classes – marching in a long train and offering homage to the Statue of Liberty as they pass by it.
(b) Liberty was personified as a female figure by the artists during the French Revolution. Liberty carries the torch of enlightenment in one hand and the Charter of the Rights of Man on the other.
(c) The third print is that of shattered remains of the symbols of absolutist institutions.
(d) The fourth print depicts the artist’s utopian vision where the people of the world are shown marching together on the path of development. It is a vision of world peace and prosperity.